Johnson Rossiter

A Look Inside A Short History of the War of Secession.

Here is a look inside A Short History of the War of Secession, one of the volumes in our Civil War: A Soldier’s Perspective collection. This book is fully searchable and easy to cite when used by students and writers. Author Rossiter Johnson explains the guiding principles behind this easy to read book in his preface shown here:

Preface

New York, April 19, 1888.

I had been for some years collecting books, articles, and memoranda concerning the great insurrection and its causes, intending to write its history in full, when I received in 1885 an invitation to tell the story in thirty articles for the pages of the New York “Examiner.” The reception given to those articles made it plain that there was a demand for a history of the war not so extended as to bewilder the reader with multiplicity of details, and not so concise as to preclude all color.

Current literature abounds in minute studies of the separate campaigns and engagements, most of them purely military, and many of them exceedingly valuable; but the reader finds no ready answer to his question, How did it happen that the war took place at all, what was its general course, and what were the motive forces that brought it on, prolonged it, and finished it?

To meet this demand with a single compact volume, is the purpose of the present effort. The “Examiner” articles have been thoroughly revised and extended, and several new chapters are added; so that it is hoped the book will present a fair idea of the great conflict that so nearly wrecked the Republic, though innumerable interesting particulars are necessarily omitted. Scarcely another war in history has had a theatre so extended, few have called out so large armies, and none have sprung from a more popular cause.

There were two thousand four hundred engagements of sufficient importance to be officially named, and many that were costlier of life and limb than some of the famous battles of the Revolution cannot even find mention in a volume like this. Current writers, intent upon military details, almost ignore the causes of the war, the spirit in which it was conducted, the complications that actually arose or were avoided by skillful diplomacy, and the significance of the results. I have therefore treated these subjects in somewhat larger proportion than the battles and sieges.

As the book is intended for easy reading, and not for hard study, I have avoided tripping up the reader on every page with foot-notes and references. In a few cases it seemed desirable to cite my authority, but generally the sources of information are such that this is unnecessary, and the reader that wishes to pursue the subject more minutely can readily find them.

Rossiter Johnson

Rossiter Johnson

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I. THE CAUSES

Introduction of Slaves — Growth and Protection of the Slave Trade — Invention of the Cotton-Gin — The First Fugitive-Slave Law — Liberty Laws — Vesey’s Insurrection — Turner’s Insurrection — Garrison’s Liberator — Murder of Lovejoy — The Anti-Slavery Society’s Publications — Extracts from the Slave Laws — Helper’s Book — Replies of Southerners — Garbling the Census — The Underground Railroad — The Constitutional Dilemma — Attack on Sumner — The Missouri Compromise — Nullification — Texas and Oregon — The Compromises of 1850 — The Dred-Scott Decision — The Political Division — The Struggle in Kansas — The Golden Circle — The Secession Crisis

CHAPTER II. THE OUTBREAK

Reliance of the South — Encouragement from the North — The Fallacy of Secession — State Allegiance — The Tendency to Centralization — The Question of Justification — The Presidential Election of 1860 — Secession of the Cotton States — Formation of the Confederacy — Bombardment of Fort Sumter

III CHAPTER. THE BEGINNING OF BLOODSHED

Lincoln’s Inaugural Address — Union Sentiment at the South — The Struggle for Virginia — The Vigintal Crop — Dragooned into Secession — Gov. Letcher’s Treachery — Farragut’s Patriotism — Secession of Arkansas and North Carolina — The First Call for Troops — The Uprising at the North — Map Showing the Area of the Confederacy — Action of Prominent Men — Mob in Baltimore — The First Bloodshed — A Week of Disasters — Occupation of Arlington Heights — Death of Ellsworth, Winthrop, and Greble

CHAPTER IV. THE FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN

More Troops Called for — Blockade of Southern Ports — Action of Congress — Confederate Government Removed to Richmond — The Cry of On to Richmond — Concentration at Bull Run — Spies in Washington — McDowell’s Army in Motion — Battle of Blackburn’s Ford — Johnston Joins Beauregard — Battle of Bull Run — Effect in Europe — Effect North and South

CHAPTER V. BORDER STATES AND FOREIGN RELATIONS

Answers of the Governors — The Struggle for Missouri — The Capture of Camp Jackson — Exertions of Francis P. Blair — Lyon in Command — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — Action at Booneville — Action at Carthage — Rise of Gen. Sigel — Death of Gen. Lyon — The Struggle for Kentucky — The Struggle for Maryland — Secession of North Carolina — The Struggle for Tennessee — Actions in Western Virginia — Formation of West Virginia — Capture of Mason and Slidell — Hostility in England — Attitude of Louis Napoleon — Friendship of Russia

CHAPTER VI. THE FIRST UNION VICTORIES
Confederate Blockade-Runners Built in England — The Hatteras Expedition — The Port Royal Expedition — Capture of Hilton Head — Battle of Paintville — Battle of Mill Springs — Forts Henry and Donelson — River Gunboats — Capture of Fort Henry — Battle of Fort Donelson — Siege of Lexington — Affairs in Arkansas — Battle of Pea Ridge

CHAPTER VII. CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS

Plans for Bombardment — The Fleet and the Commander — The Sailing-Orders — The Bombardment — Farragut’s Orders — The Battle with the Forts — The Battle with the Fleet — Destruction of Confederate Vessels — Surrender of the City

CHAPTER VIII. THE MONITOR AND THE MERRIMAC

The Burned Merrimac Raised and Repaired — Sinking of the Cumberland — The Monitor — Destruction of both Iron-clads

CHAPTER IX. THE CAMPAIGN OF SHILOH

Siege of New Madrid — Bombardment of Island Number Ten — Pope’s Captures — Battle of Shiloh — Fall of Gen. Johnston — The Final Victory — The Turning-point of the War

CHAPTER X. THE PENINSULA CAMPAIGN

Command Given to McClellan — His Plans — Appointment of Secretary Stanton — On the Peninsula — Battle of Williamsburg — On the Chickahominy — The Battle of Fair Oaks — Effect of the Swamps — Lee in Command — Stuart’s Raid — Nearest Approach to Richmond — Action at Beaver Dam Creek — Battle of Gaines’s Mills — Battle of Savage’s Station — Battle of Charles City Cross-Roads — Battle of Malvern Hill

CHAPTER XI. POPE’S CAMPAIGN

Formation of the Army of Virginia — Halleck made General-in-Chief — McClellan Leaves the Peninsula — Battle of Cedar Mountain — Pope and Lee Maneuverer — Battle of Groveton — The Second Bull Run — Battle of Chantilly — The Porter Dispute

CHAPTER XII. THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN

Confederate Advance into Maryland — The Army of the Potomac sent against them — Lee’s Plans Learned from a Lost Despatch — Capture of Harper’s Ferry — Battle of South Mountain — Battle of Antietam

CHAPTER XIII. EMANCIPATION

Lincoln’s Attitude toward Slavery — McClellan’s Attitude — The Democratic Party’s Attitude — Predictions by the Poets — Slaves Declared Contraband — Action of Fremont — Hunter’s Proclamation — Blacks First Enlisted — Division of Sentiment in the Army — Maryland Abolishes Slavery — The President and Horace Greeley Correspond on the Subject — Emancipation Proclaimed — Autumn Elections

CHAPTER XIV. BURNSIDE’S CAMPAIGN

McClellan’s Inaction — Visit and Letters of Lincoln to Him — Superseded by Burnside — The Position at Fredericksburg — Attack upon the Heights — The Result

CHAPTER XV. ROSECRANS AND HOOKER

Battle of Perryville — Battles of Iuka and Corinth — Battle of Stone River — Enlistment of Negroes — The Black Flag — Black Men in Former Wars — Letter of the President to Hooker — Burnside Superseded by Hooker — Battle of Chancellorsville

CHAPTER XVI. GETTYSBURG

Invasion of the North Determined on — Cavalry Skirmish at Fleetwood which marks a Turning-Point in that Service — Hooker’s Plans — Asks to be Relieved — Meade in Command — Battle of Gettysburg

CHAPTER XVII. THE VICKSBURG CAMPAIGN

Operations on the Mississippi — Grant placed in Command — Plans the Campaign — Loss at Holly Springs — Sherman and Porter Descend the River — Sherman’s Attempt on the Yazoo — At Haines’s Bluff — Capture of Arkansas Post — Cutting a Canal — Yazoo Pass Attempted — Steele’s Bayou — Grant Crosses the Mississippi — Grierson’s Raid — Action at Raymond — Capture of Jackson — Battle of Champion’s Hill — Pemberton in Vicksburg — Siege of the City Begun — Surrender

CHAPTER XVIII. THE DRAFT RIOTS

Attitude of the Democratic Party — Vallandigham Banished — Speech of ex-President Pierce — Speech of Horatio Seymour — Law of Substitutes Persistently Misinterpreted — The Draft in New York — The Riots — The Autumn Elections

CHAPTER XIX. THE SIEGE OF CHARLESTON

Blockade of the Harbor — Du Pont’s Attack — Defeat — Capture of the Atlanta — Gillmore’s Siege — Assault on Fort Wagner — Its Capture — The Swamp Angel — Bombardment of Charleston

CHAPTER XX. THE CHATTANOOGA CAMPAIGN

Rosecrans and Bragg — Fight at Dover — At Franklin — At Milton — Morgan’s Raid — Maneuvring for Chattanooga — Battle of Chickamauga — National Forces in the West Reorganized — Battles of Chattanooga — The Battle Above the Clouds — Capture of Mission Ridge

CHAPTER XXI. THE BLACK CHAPTER

Persecutions of Union Men — The Black Flag — The Guerrillas — Secession from Secession — Riot in Concord — Massacre at Fort Pillow — Care of Prisoners — Andersonville — Other Prisons — Suspension of Exchanges — Violation of Paroles — Principles relating to Captures

CHAPTER XXII. THE SANITARY AND CHRISTIAN COMMISSIONS

Women in the War — The Sanitary Commission Formed — The Popular Idea about it — Work of the Commission — Sanitary Fairs — The Christian Commission — Volunteer Nurses

CHAPTER XXIII. THE OVERLAND CAMPAIGN

Grant made Lieutenant-General with Command of All the Armies — Headquarters with the Army of the Potomac — Plan of the Campaign — Position of the Armies — Relative Numbers — Grant Crosses the Rapidan — In the Wilderness — Battle of the Wilderness — Battle of Spottsylvania — Battle of Cold Harbor — The Losses — Grant moves to the James — Crosses the James — Ewell Sees the End

CHAPTER XXIV. THE CONFEDERATE CRUISERS

The Alabama — Sunk by the Kearsarge — The Sumter — Other Cruisers — Protest of the Government — Secretary Seward’s Despatches — Privateering — Why England did Not Interfere — Arbitration

CHAPTER XXV. THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN

The Meridian Campaign — The Shreveport Expedition — Battle of Sabine Cross-Roads — Battle of Pleasant Hill — Bailey’s Dam — Sherman and Johnston — Sherman begins the Campaign — Johnston Abandons Resaca — Fighting at New Hope Church — The Position at Pine Mountain — Johnston at Kenesaw — Fall of Gen. Polk — Sherman Employs Negroes — Battle of Kenesaw — Crossing the Chattahoochee — Hood Supersedes Johnston — Action at Peachtree Creek — Battle of Atlanta — Fall of Gen. McPherson — The Losses — Cavalry Expeditions — Stoneman’s Raid — Fall of Atlanta

CHAPTER XXVI. THE BATTLE OF MOBILE BAY

The Defences — Farragut’s Preparations — Passing the Forts — Loss of the Tecumseh — Fight with the Ram Tennessee — Cost of the Victory — Craven’s Chivalry

CHAPTER XXVII. THE ADVANCE ON PETERSBURG

Butler’s Movement — Beauregard’s Counter Movement — Smith’s Advance — Hancock’s Attack — Cutting off the Railroads — The Fight for the Weldon Road — Burnside’s Mine — The Explosion — The Slaughter at the Crater — Fighting at Deep Bottom — Action at Reams Station — Construction of an Army Railroad — The Siege of Petersburg Begun — Early’s Raid toward Washington — Battle of the Monocacy — Engagement at Winchester — Burning of Chambersburg

CHAPTER XXVIII. SHERIDAN IN THE SHENANDOAH

Importance of the Valley — Hunter Asks to be Relieved — Sheridan’s Career — Grant’s Instructions — Interference at Washington — Lincoln Gives Grant a Hint — Sheridan Marches on Winchester — Minor Engagements — Sheridan’s Opportunity — Battle of the Opequan — Early goes Whirling through Winchester — Battle of Fisher’s Hill — Destruction in the Valley — Action at Tom’s Brook — Battle of Cedar Creek

CHAPTER XXIX. THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

Efforts toward Peace — The Frémont Convention — The Republican Convention — Nomination of Lincoln and Johnson — The Democratic Convention — Its Denunciation of the War — Nomination of McClellan and Pendleton — Frémont Withdraws — Character of the Canvass — The Hope of the Confederates — The Issue as Popularly Understood — Election of Lincoln — Maryland Abolishes Slavery — The Highest Achievement of the American People

CHAPTER XXX. THE NATIONAL FINANCES

An Empty Treasury — Borrowing Money at Twelve per cent. — Salmon P. Chase made Secretary of the Treasury — The Direct-Tax Bill — Issue of Demand Notes — Chase’s Courage — The Banks form a Syndicate — Issue of Bonds — Amount of Coin in Circulation — Suspension of Specie Payments — Pay of Soldiers — Greenbacks — Chase’s Plan for a National Banking System — The Fractional Currency — Fluctuations of Gold — The Cost of the War

CHAPTER XXXI. THE MARCH TO THE SEA

Sherman makes Atlanta a Military Depot — His Peculiar Position — Disaffection in the Confederacy — Hood Attacks the Communications — Defence of Allatoona — Thomas Organizes an Army — Sherman Determines to Go Down to the Sea — Destruction in Atlanta — The Order of March — Sherman’s Instructions — The Route — Incidents — Destruction of the Railroad — Killing the Bloodhounds — The Bummers — Capture of Fort McAllister — Hardee Evacuates Savannah, and Sherman Offers it as a Christmas Present to the President — Battle of Franklin — Battle of Nashville — Hood’s Army Destroyed

CHAPTER XXXII. The Final Battles

Sherman Marches through the Carolinas — Johnston Restored to Command — Columbia Burned — Charleston Evacuated — Capture of Fort Fisher — Battle of Averysboro — Battle of Bentonville — Schofield Joins Sherman — A Peace Conference — Battle of Waynesboro — Sheridan’s Raid on the Upper James — Lee Plans to Escape — Fighting Before Petersburg — Battle of Five Forks — Lee’s Lines Broken — Richmond Evacuated — Lee’s Retreat — His Surrender — Grant’s Generous Terms — Surrender of the Other Confederate Armies

CHAPTER XXXIII. PEACE

The War Governors — Civilian Patriots — The Sudden Fall of the Confederacy — Capture of Mr. Davis — Character of the Insurrection — Magnanimity of the Victors — The Assassination Conspiracy — Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address — Lincoln in Richmond — The Grand Review — The Home-Coming — Lessons of the War

LIST OF MAPS

  • Charleston Harbor
  • Showing the Area of the Confederacy
  • Battle-field of Bull Run
  • Borders of Kentucky and Tennessee
  • Battle field of Pea Ridge
  • Delta of the Mississippi
  • Hampton Roads
  • Battle-field of Shiloh
  • Battle-grounds North of Richmond
  • Battle-field of Malvern Hill
  • Battle-field of South Mountain
  • Battle-field of the Antietam
  • Battle-field of Fredericksburg
  • Battle-field of Perryville
  • Battle-field of Chancellorsville
  • Vicinity of Gettysburg
  • Vicinity of Vicksburg
  • Fort Wagner and Approaches
  • Battle-field of Chickamauga
  • Vicinity of Chattanooga
  • The Wilderness Battle-field
  • Battle-field of Spottsylvania
  • Route from Chattanooga to Atlanta
  • Mobile Bay
  • Defences of Richmond and Petersburg
  • The Shenandoah Valley
  • Sherman’s Route to the Sea
  • Battle-grounds of Nashville and Franklin
  • Sherman’s Route through the Carolinas
  • Wilmington and Fort Fisher
  • Route of Lee’s Retreat

Sample Images

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