Where Tornadoes Begin

The most remarkable and interesting features of the development of tornadoes is the fact that they nearly always from southeast of a moving center of low pressure, and their tracks, scattered here and there, conform closely to the progressive direction of the main storm.

For example, on Feb. 19, 1884, forty-four tornadoes occurred in Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, but principally in Georgia and Alabama. They developed at a distance of 500 to 2,000 miles from a storm-center that moved across the northern part of the United States, beginning at the northern extremity of the Rocky Mountains in Montana, thence south-easterly through Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to northern Illinois and Indiana, northward through Michigan, across Lake Huron, disappearing north of Quebec.

This sudden sharp turn of the storm center southward into Illinois and Indiana. Seems to have relation to the unprecedentedly large number of tornadoes that developed not far from the south Atlantic coats, extending inland as far as southern Illinois and Indian. This southward lunge of a mass of cold, moist air seems to have caused the abnormal conditions of temperate and due point, and the high winds necessary to case the most tremendous exhibition of destructive, terrible tornado power ever recorded by the signal service.

This invariable location southeast of the storm center is one of the main peculiarities of tornado development upon which the predictions depend.

Popular Science Monthly

This item, and others like it, can be found in Accessible Archive’s African American Newspapers Collection. This enormous collection of African American newspapers contains a wealth of information about cultural life and history during the 1800s and is rich with first-hand reports of the major events and issues of the day.

Source: The Christian Recorder, February 4, 1884
Top Image: Damage from a tornado which struck Fort Smith, Arkansas on the night of January 11, 1898. From NOAA Public Domain Photo Archive

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The History of the City of Denver, Arapahoe County, and Colorado

History of the City of Denver, Arapahoe County, and Colorado

In presenting this, their first work west of the Missouri River, the publishers have no apology to make. In the preparation of the historical portion, they have employed Mr. W. B. Vickers, a gentleman whose well-known standing and ability as a writer are a sufficient guaranty of the thorough manner in which he has performed his task. In the biographical department, the large number of sketches inserted and the limited space to be devoted to each precluded any considerable attempt at literary elaboration; indeed, it was thought better to present the prominent points in the lives of a larger number than fulsome eulogies of a few. Owing to the indifference of some and the absence of others, which rendered it impossible to obtain the necessary data, a few biographies that would have been especially appropriate and desirable are necessarily omitted, in spite of the most constant and persevering efforts to make this department of the work complete.

To the great number of the people of Denver and vicinity who, by their information, advice and cordial support, have aided them in their efforts, the publishers and their assistants desire to express their earnest thanks; and, while absolute perfection is not claimed nor to be expected, they trust the present work will meet the approbation of the public, and prove a valuable exponent of the history, resources, development and present condition of the Centennial State and its capital city.


Contents – Part One - Colorado

  • CHAPTER I. — Ringing up the Curtain
  • CHAPTER II. — Early Discoveries of Gold
  • CHAPTER III. — Journalism in Colorado
  • CHAPTER IV. — Early Politics and Organisation of the Territory
  • CHAPTER V. — Lo! the Poor Indian
  • CHAPTER VI. — The Mountains of Colorado
  • CHAPTER VII. — Colorado during the Rebellion, Territorial Officials
  • CHAPTER VIII. — Progress of the Country
  • CHAPTER IX. — Climate of Colorado
  • CHAPTER X. — Agricultural Resources of the State
  • CHAPTER XI. — Stock-raising in Colorado
  • CHAPTER XII. — Leadville and California Gulch
  • CHAPTER XIII. — History of the First, Colorado Regiment
  • CHAPTER XIV. — History of the Second Colorado Regiment
  • CHAPTER XV. — Sketch of the Third Colorado Regiment
  • CHAPTER XVI. — The Geology of Colorado
  • CHAPTER XVII. — Peek Climbing is the Rocky Mountains
  • CHAPTER XVIII. — Sketch of the San Juan Country and Dolores District
  • CHAPTER XIX. — The University of Colorado

Contents – Part Two – Arapahoe County and Littleton

  • CHAPTER I. — The Ute Rebellion
  • CHAPTER II. — Affairs at White River Agency
  • CHAPTER III. — The News in Denver
  • CHAPTER IV. — Advance upon the Agency
  • CHAPTER V. — Arrival Agency. The Massacre
  • CHAPTER VI. — Cessation of Hostilities — Rescue of the Prisoners
  • CHAPTER VII. — Sad Story of the Captives
  • CHAPTER VIII. — The Atrocities Colorado
  • CHAPTER IX. — The Peace Commission Farce
  • CHAPTER X. — The Ute Question lo Congress

Contents — Part Three – Denver

  • CHAPTER I — Wonderful Transformation of Twenty Years. A Prophecy
  • CHAPTER II. — Pen Picture of Dearer in 1869. The Pioneers.
  • CHAPTER III. — The Fall and Water Campaign
  • CHAPTER IV. — The City of bearer in 1860. Lot-Jumping, Etc.
  • CHAPTER V. — Denver in 1861
  • CHAPTER VI. — From 1862 to the Flood
  • CHAPTER VII. — The Great Flood of 1864
  • CHAPTER VIII. — After the Flood
  • CHAPTER IX. — Coming of the Railroads
  • CHAPTER X. — Events of the year 1869
  • CHAPTER XI. — The Railroad year 1870
  • CHAPTER XII. — Progress in the years 1871-72
  • CHAPTER XIII. — Denver from 1873 to 1875
  • CHAPTER XIV. — The Centennial Year
  • CHAPTER XV. — Denver in 1877-78-79
  • CHAPTER XVI. — Denver doling the year 1879
  • CHAPTER XVII. — The Public Schools
  • CHAPTER XVIII. — Railroads, The Denver Pacific
  • CHAPTER XIX. — Denver, South Park & Pacific
  • CHAPTER XX. — Denver & Grande Railway
  • CHAPTER XXI. — The Colorado Central Railroad
  • CHAPTER XXII. — The Telegraph and Street Railway
  • CHAPTER XXIII. — The Churches of Denver
  • CHAPTER XXIV. — The Sunday Schools of Denver
  • CHAPTER XXV. — Hill’s Smelting Works
  • CHAPTER XXVI. — Secret Benevolent Societies; Cemeteries; Brinker Collegiate Institute; Places of Amusement; The Fire Companies; The Military Companies; Denver Peculiarities
  • CHAPTER XXVII. — The Learned Professions

The full-text search capability of the American County Histories database permits the student/researcher to explore all the publications of a particular county by using a single query. In addition, those wishing to read or browse the text on a page by page basis may do so in the original format merely by scrolling down the screen and then continuing to the next chapter.
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James Wagoner Sold Into Slavery

This 1838  map by Joseph Gest is included to illustrate the proximity of where James Wagoner was kidnapped in Cincinnati, Ohio and sold in Newport, Kentucky   —  right across the river.

From the July 1860 issue of Douglass’ Monthly

Readers will recollect the case of Wagoner, a free colored man kidnapped from Cincinnati, taken over into Kentucky, where he and his two kidnappers were arrested and put in jail. The kidnappers were set at liberty and the free citizen of Ohio held as a slave. The particulars were copied from the Cincinnati Gazette.

DM-July-1860On Monday Wagoner was brought before the Mayor of Newport on a writ of habeas corpus, and it was proved that he was born in Ohio, of free parents, and that he had never been in Virginia. The statement of two persons from Virginia was taken that Wagoner was a fugitive slave, the Mayor so decided, and Wagoner was hurried by the Sheriff to the auction block, and sold to Dr. Foster of Newport for $100, and afterward the enslaved negro could be neither seen nor heard of.

The Cincinnati Gazette is quite aroused by so diabolical an outrage, which is but one of a series the people of that city are in a good part responsible for by their, frequent and meek submission to them. Official and unofficial kidnappers prey upon colored people there with about as much impunity as in Dahomy. Says the Gazette:

Here is a free man, a man born of parents legally freed and residing free in Ohio, kidnapped, kept in jail six months, and finally sold for jail fees while his kidnappers were allowed to escape. Of the disgraceful alacrity which certain individuals in Newport have manifested, we cannot trust out selves to speak. Not only has a grievous and irreparable wrong been done to Wagoner, but the honor of the great State of Kentucky, in whose name the wrong has been committed, has been sullied, and the dignity of the State of Ohio insulted. For an Ohioan has been made a slave by tricks which would disgrace a ‘shyster’ before that lowest of human tribunals, the Tombs Police Court in New York.

We trust our readers whose blood will be stirred by the recital of this wrong, will not forget that the Democratic party is the champion and defender of that system which this whole business is but the legitimate outgrowth. Their indignation should not vent itself in frothy declamation and violent invective, but should crystallize into efficient action.


Wagoner To Be Returned To Ohio

The Cincinnati Commercial of the 8th has the following in regard to the kidnapped and sold James Wagoner:

His purchaser, Dr. J. Q A. Foster, has given Geo. P. Webster, Esq. , Attorney in the case, an order upon the jailor of Lexington, to surrender Wagoner upon the payment of certain fees and costs. Mr. Webster leaves this morning for that place, and will probably return this evening with Wagoner, who will be placed in jail to await the next sitting of the Circuit Court in this city.

Source:  Douglass’ Monthly – July, 1860

This item, and others like it, can be found in Accessible Archive’s African American Newspapers Collection. This enormous collection of African American newspapers contains a wealth of information about cultural life and history during the 1800s and is rich with first-hand reports of the major events and issues of the day.
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The 1848 Women’s Rights Convention Opens

The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women’s rights convention. It advertised itself as “a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman“. It spanned two days (July 19–20, 1848) and attracted widespread attention. It was followed by other women’s rights conventions, including one in Rochester, New York just two weeks later.

This small item promoting it appeared in Frederick Douglass’s The North Star on July 14, 1848:

North Star Announcement

North Star Announcement

Woman’s Rights Convention: A Convention to discuss the Social, Civil and Religious Condition and Rights of Woman, will be held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, New York, on Wednesday and Thursday, the 19th and 20th of July instant. During the first day, the meetings will be exclusively for women, which all are earnestly invited to attend. The public generally are invited to be present on the second day, when Lucretia Mott, of Philadelphia, and others, both ladies and gentlemen, will address the Convention.

Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls

Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls

On July 28, 1848 The North Star followed up with this extended report:

One of the most interesting events of the past week, was the holding of what is technically styled a Woman’s Rights Convention, at Seneca Falls. The speaking, addresses, and resolutions of this extraordinary meeting, were almost wholly conducted by women; and although they evidently felt themselves in a novel position, it is but simple justice to say, that their whole proceedings were characterized by marked ability and dignity.

No one present, we think, however much he might be disposed to differ from the views advanced by the leading speakers on that occasion, will fail to give them credit for brilliant talents and excellent dispositions. In this meeting, as in other deliberative assemblies, there were frequently differences of opinion and animated discussion; but in no case was there the slightest absence of good feeling and decorum. Several interesting documents, setting forth the rights as well as the grievances of woman, were read. Among these was a declaration of sentiments, to be regarded as the basis of a grand movement for attaining all the civil, social, political and religious rights of woman.

Lucretia Mott

Lucretia Mott

As these documents are soon to be published in pamphlet form, under the authority of a Committee of women, appointed by that meeting, we will not mar them by attempting any synopsis of their contents. We should not, however, do justice to our own convictions, or to the excellent persons connected with this infant movement, if we did not, in this connection, offer a few remarks on the general subject which the Convention met to consider, and the objects they seek to attain.

In doing so, we are not insensible that the bare mention of this truly important subject in any other than terms of contemptuous ridicule and scornful disfavor, is likely to excite against us the fury of bigotry and the folly of prejudice. A discussion of the rights of animals would be regarded with far more complacency by many of what are called the wise and the good of our land, than would be a discussion of the rights of woman. It is, in their estimation, to be guilty of evil thoughts, to think that woman is entitled to rights equal with man.

Many who have at last made the discovery that negroes have some rights as well as other members of the human family, have yet to be convinced that woman is entitled to any. Eight years ago, a number of persons of this description actually abandoned the anti-slavery cause, lest by giving their influence in that direction, they might possibly be giving countenance to the dangerous heresy that woman, in respect to rights, stands on an equal footing with man. In the judgment of such persons, the American slave system, with all its concomitant horrors, is less to be deplored than this wicked idea. It is perhaps needless to say, that we cherish little sympathy for such sentiments, or respect for such prejudices.

Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass

Standing as we do upon the watch-tower of human freedom, we cannot be deterred from an expression of our approbation of any movement, however humble, to improve and elevate the character and condition of any members of the human family. While it is impossible for us to go into this subject at length, and dispose of the various objections which are often urged against such a doctrine as that of female equality, we are free to say, that in respect to political rights, we hold woman to be justly entitled to all we claim for man. We go farther, and express our conviction that all political rights which it is expedient for man to exercise, it is equally so for woman.

All that distinguishes man as an intelligent and accountable being, is equally true of woman; and if that government is only just which governs by the free consent of the governed, there can be no reason in the world for denying to woman the exercise of the elective franchise, or a hand in making and administering the laws of the land. Our doctrine is, that “Right is of no sex.” We therefore bid the women engaged in this movement our humble God-speed.

Top photo and photo of the Wesleyan Chapel by Jen J. Walker – See more at Women’s Rights National Historical Park ~ Seneca Falls, New York.

This item, and others like it, can be found in Accessible Archive’s Newspapers Collection. We can provide access to fully searchable newspapers by and for women including The Lily, The Revolution, and the National Citizen and Ballot Box.
This item, and others like it, can be found in Accessible Archive’s African American Newspapers Collection. This enormous collection of African American newspapers contains a wealth of information about cultural life and history during the 1800s and is rich with first-hand reports of the major events and issues of the day.
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Plan of the city of Washington.

Happy Birthday to the District of Columbia!

The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country’s East Coast. The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any U.S. state.

The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the preexisting settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria. Named in honor of George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital.

From its founding via the Residence Act in 1790 until the Civil War, the question of slavery in the district was often debated.

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