Crummell Sermon

Reviewed: Rev. Crummell’s Sermon Against Woman’s Equality

Rev. Alexander Crummell, a colored clergyman of Washington, pastor of St. Luke’s (Episcopal) Church, and said to be a highly educated man, has within a few months preached a sermon upon the biblical position of woman, in which he holds her as having been created inferior to man, secondary to him, with no right, natural or acquired, by creation or revelation, to govern herself or hold opinions of her own. This sermon, “Marriage and Divorce,” is said to have been printed by request, but whether this request comes from husbands or wives is not stated.

Taking for his ground that passage of scripture which declares that “a man shall leave father and mother and cleave unto his wife,” he soon renders the contradictory opinion that adultery on the part of the wife is a ground for divorce by the husband, but that no reciprocal right exists upon her part.

In the space at command it is impossible to fully review this sermon, which is of the same general type of the Knox-Little sermon delivered last winter in St. Clement’s Church, Philadelphia, and which was reviewed by the editor of the National Citizen. Although Rev. Crummell admits of allowable ground of separation on the part of the wife, for “cruelty, brutal assaults by the husband, absolute neglect or refusal to support her or her family, incompatibility of temper, beastly lust and adultery,” he presses upon her attention the fact that she is still his wife, and is bound by the law of wedlock during the whole period of her husband’s life, and has no right to break this bondage by divorce.

This item, and others like it, can be found in Accessible Archive’s Newspapers Collection. We can provide access to fully searchable newspapers by and for women including The Lily, The Revolution, and the National Citizen and Ballot Box.


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Inland Sea

Utah History: The Shores of the Inland Sea

It was no Garden of the Hesperides upon which the Pioneers gazed that memorable July morning. Aside from its scenic splendor, which was indeed glorious, magnificent, there was little to invite, and much to repel, in the prospect presented to their view. A barren plain, hemmed in by mountains, burning beneath the rays of the mid-summer sun. No waving fields or forests, no verdant meadows to rest and refresh the weary eye, but on all sides a seemingly interminable waste of sagebrush, bespangled with sunflowers, the paradise of the lizard, the cricket, and the rattlesnake.

Less than half way across the baked and burning valley, dividing it in twain, as if the vast bowl, in the intense heat of the Master Potter’s fires, in process of formation had cracked asunder, a narrow river, turbid and shallow, from south to north, in many a serpentine curve, sweeps on its sinuous way. Beyond, a broad lake, the river’s goal, dotted with towering islands, its briny waters shimmering in the sunbeams.

From mountains snow-capped, seamed and craggy, lifting their kingly heads to be crowned by the golden sun, flow limpid, laughing streams, cold and crystal clear, leaping, dashing, foaming, flashing from rock to glen, from peak to plain. But the fresh canyon brooks are far and few, and the arid waste they water, glistening with beds of salt and soda and pools of deadly alkali, scarcely allows them to reach the river, but midway well nigh swallows and absorbs them in its thirsty sands.

Utah History: The Shores of the Inland Sea

Utah History: The Shores of the Inland Sea

Above the line of gray and gold, of sage and sunflower, the sloping hillsides and precipitous steeps are clothed with purple and dark green patches; these, the oak-bush, the squaw-berry, and other scant growths, with here and there a solitary tree, a few acres of withered bunch grass, and the lazily waving willows and wild-rose bushes fringing the distant streams, the only green things visible.

The full-text search capability of the American County Histories database permits the student/researcher to explore all the publications of a particular county by using a single query. In addition, those wishing to read or browse the text on a page by page basis may do so in the original format merely by scrolling down the screen and then continuing to the next chapter.

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New MARC Records

Great News! New MARC Records Available

New MARC records are now available for our new products! These include: African American Newspapers, Part XIII: The Freedmen’s Record & The Negro Business League Herald; America and World War I: American Military Camp Newspapers; and Women’s Suffrage, Part IV: The New Citizen and Western Woman Voter, and Part V: The Remonstrance. The records are provided two ways – as complete sets and as only new records.

As always, for each set you can download either a zip file that has one file with all MARC records or a zip file that has one file for each collection.

The MARC FTP link can be found on your institution’s Accessible Archives Administrators/Account Information Page.

The images for all of the content in the new products is now available and can be viewed in the Browse the Archives page. We are adding the XML and re-keyed text for complete searchability of these products monthly!

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Fugative Slave Act 1850

The Manstealing Law Explained

The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers.

This was one of the most controversial elements of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a “slave power conspiracy”. It required that all escaped slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters and that officials and citizens of free states had to cooperate in this law. Abolitionists nicknamed it the “Bloodhound Law” for the dogs that were used to track down runaway slaves.

In Frederick Douglass’ newspaper, The North Star, the editors referred to use of the law as “Manstealing” in reference to the Bible verse, Exodus 21:16 that reads: And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.

An April 24, 1851 poster warning the "colored people of Boston" about policemen acting as slave catchers.

An April 24, 1851 poster warning the “colored people of Boston” about policemen acting as slave catchers.

We copy from the Lowell American the following abstract:

It is necessary that the people shall be acquainted with the kidnapping law recently enacted by Congress, and as we cannot keep in type the entire law, we have made a brief but correct synopsis of it. Here it is:

But in the first place let us give Daniel Webster’s endorsement of the bill. The following is from his speech of the 7th of March, 1850:

“Every member of every Northern Legislature is bound by oath to support the Constitution of the United States; and this article of the Constitution which says to these States that they shall deliver up fugitive slaves is as binding an honor and in conscience as any other article; and no man fulfils his duty, under his oath, in any State Legislature who sets himself to work to find excuses, evasions, escapes from his constitutional duty. My friend at the head of the Judiciary Committee has a bill upon the subject now before the Senate, with some amendments to it which have been offered. I propose to support that bill with all proper authority and provisions in it, to the fullest extent – to the fullest extent.”

Now here is the substance of the “Bill”:

Duties of Commissioners.
Commissioners who have been or shall be appointed by the Circuit Courts of the United States, are authorized and required to exercise and discharge all the powers and duties conferred by this act. – Sec. 1.

Appointment of Commissioners.
The Superior Court of each organized Territory shall have the same power to appoint Commissioners as the Circuit Court of the U.S., and the commissioners appointed by these Superior courts are to possess the powers conferred upon those appointed by the Circuit Courts. – Sec . 2.

This item, and others like it, can be found in Accessible Archive’s African American Newspapers Collection. This enormous collection of African American newspapers contains a wealth of information about cultural life and history during the 1800s and is rich with first-hand reports of the major events and issues of the day.

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Irish Indentured Servants in the Colonies

Until the late 18th century, indentured servitude was very common in British North America. It was often a way for poor Europeans to emigrate to the American colonies: they signed an indenture in return for a passage. After their indenture expired, the immigrants were free to work for themselves or another employer.

In some cases, the indenture was made with a ship’s master, who on-sold the indenture to an employer in the colonies. Most indentured servants worked as farm laborers or domestic servants, although some were apprenticed to craftsmen.

The terms of an indenture were not always enforced by American courts, although runaways were usually sought out and returned to their employer.

Most labor contracts made were in increments of five years with the opportunity to extend another five years. Many contracts also provided a free passage home after the dictated labor was completed. However, there were generally no policies and contracts regulating control over employers once the labor hours were completed, which led to frequent abuse and ill-treatment.

Our 18th Century newspaper collections include the Pennsylvania Gazette and the South Carolina Gazette. Both newspapers carried many advertisements for the sale of indenture contracts and the recovery of runaway servants.

Indentures for Sale

August 19, 1762: To be SOLD, AN Irish Woman Servant, who has three Years and three Months to serve. Enquire at the New Printing Office. (The Pennsylvania Gazette)

October 29, 1766: TO be disposed of, two Irish Servant Boys times, the one having Six, the other Seven Years to serve, and are suitable either for Town or Country Business. The above Servants Times are disposed of for no Fault, but only for want of Employment. For further Particulars, enquire of William Parr, Esq; or of the Subscriber, living at the Corner of Walnut and Third streets. (The Pennsylvania Gazette)

August 10, 1738: Just arrived from DUBLIN, In the Snow JOLLY BACCHUS, Peter Cullen, Commander: A PARCEL of likely ENGLISH and IRISH SERVANTS, Tradesmen, viz. Shoemakers, Taylors, Weavers, Black and White Smiths, Carpenters, Husband- men and sundry other Tradesmen: Also a Parcel of likely Servant Women, fit for either Town or Country Work; whose Times are to be disposed of, by THOMAS WALKER, Butcher, or SAMUEL WALKER, or JOHN BEAUMONT, or the said Master on Board the aid Snow, now lying off against Market-Street Wharffe, where all due Attendance will be given. Philadelphia, August 3, 1738. (The Pennsylvania Gazette)

May 25, 1734: To be Sold by Ribton Hutchinson on the Bay extraordinary good Butter in Firkins, Herrings, Cheese, Irish Potatoes, Mens and Womens Servants, Irish Linnens of several sorts, and good Barbados Rum in Hogsheads, Terces and Barrils. (The South Carolina Gazette)

May 13, 1766: To be sold, for no Fault, an Irish indented Servant Maid, who is an excellent Sempstress, and has upwards of four Years to serve., Enquire of CHARLES CROUCH. at his Printing-Office, in Elliott-street. (The South Carolina Gazette)

The Pennsylvania Gazette was one of the United States’ most prominent newspapers from 1728—before the time period of the American Revolution—until 1800. Published in Philadelphia from 1728 through 1800, The Pennsylvania Gazette is considered The New York Times of the 18th century.

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