New Mexico County Histories

Flag of New MexicoNew Mexico is located in the southwest United States. New Mexico is the 5th most extensive, the 36th most populous, and is one of the least densely populated of the all the United States.

New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is often incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. However, New Mexico was given its name in 1563, and again in 1581, by Spanish explorers who believed the area contained wealthy Indian cultures similar to those of the Mexica (Aztec) Empire. Modern Mexico, formerly known as New Spain, adopted its name in 1821 — centuries after New Mexico already had its name.

Inhabited for many centuries before European exploration, New Mexico was subsequently part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain, then part of Mexico, and finally a U.S. territory before attaining statehood. Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, including descendants of Spanish colonists and recent immigrants from Latin America. It also has the second-highest percentage of Native Americans after Alaska, and the fourth-highest total number of Native Americans after California, Oklahoma, and Arizona.

Map of New Mexico 1879

Map of New Mexico 1879

New Mexico played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War with both Confederate and Union governments claiming ownership rights over the New Mexico Territory. In 1861 the Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory and waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign in an attempt to control the American Southwest and open up access to Union California.

Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. However, the Confederate territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war.

Additionally, over 8,000 troops from New Mexico Territory served the Union

The compromise of 1850, created the current boundary between New Mexico and Texas. It is also considered during this time a surveyors error awarded the Permian Basin to the State of Texas, which included the city of El Paso. Claims to the Permian were initially dropped by New Mexico in a bid to gain statehood, in 1911.

Congress admitted New Mexico as the 47th state in the Union on January 6, 1912.

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Collection Details

  1. L. BRADFORD PRINCE, A CONCISE HISTORY OF NEW MEXICO, THE TORCH PRESS, 1914
  2. WILLIAM T. RITCH, AZTLAN: THE HISTORY, RESOURCES AND ATTRACTIONS OF NEW MEXICO, D. LOTHROP & CO., 1885, 1885
  3. DONA ANA COUNTY IN NEW MEXICO, NEW MEXICO BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION, 1908
  4. HELEN HAINES, HISTORY OF NEW MEXICO FROM THE SPANISH CONQUEST TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1530-1890: WITH PORTRAITS AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF ITS PROMINENT PEOPLE, NEW MEXICO HISTORICAL PUBLISHING CO, 1891
  5. GEORGE B. ANDERSON, HISTORY OF NEW MEXICO, ITS RESOURCES AND PEOPLE , PACIFIC STATES PUBLISHING CO, 1907
  6. RALPH EMERSON TWITCHELL, LEADING FACTS OF NEW MEXICAN HISTORY, VOL 1, 1911
  7. RALPH EMERSON TWITCHELL, LEADING FACTS OF NEW MEXICAN HISTORY, VOL 2, 1912
  8. RALPH EMERSON TWITCHELL, LEADING FACTS OF NEW MEXICAN HISTORY, VOL 3, 1917
  9. RALPH EMERSON TWITCHELL, LEADING FACTS OF NEW MEXICAN HISTORY, VOL 4, 1917
  10. RALPH EMERSON TWITCHELL, LEADING FACTS OF NEW MEXICAN HISTORY, VOL 5, 1917
  11. , NEW MEXICO. BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION. CHAVES COUNTY, NEW MEXICO: AN IMPERIAL DOMAIN WITH A MAGNIFICENT STOCK RANGE, NEW MEXICAN PRINTING CO, 1901
  12. RALPH EMERSON TWITCHELL, THE SPANISH ARCHIVES OF NEW MEXICO VOL. 1, 1914
  13. RALPH EMERSON TWITCHELL, THE SPANISH ARCHIVES OF NEW MEXICO VOL. 2, 1914
  14. HORATIO LADD, THE STORY OF NEW MEXICO, D. LOTHROP, 1891
  15. MAX FROST, TO THE LAND OF SUNSHINE, 1905

 

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