Tag Archives: 19th century
classroom-teacher

Equal Pay for Equal Work in 1870

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Extract of a private letter from a lady in Michigan:

I see in a late Revolution that it will expose the unfairness of half pay for equal work, on account of sex.

Here is only one example, out of many in my line of business.

On September 1, 1869, I took a man’s place in one of the city ward schools, the first time in this city that this position had been filled by a woman—have done the same work (except that of using corporal punishment, which, by the way, I abolished in my department five years ago, the Board here, a few weeks since); and giving better satisfaction, judging from “what they say,” than did my male predecessor, he receiving $60 per month, and I but $30.

The Board engaged me for the second term — proof of satisfaction. I have petitioned for better salary, pleaded for justice, and petitioned — but in vain.

This item, and others like it, can be found in Accessible Archive’s Newspapers Collection. We can provide access to fully searchable newspapers by and for women including The Lily, The Revolution, and the National Citizen and Ballot Box.

Source: The Revolution, March 24, 1870
Image:  Classroom scenes in Washington, D.C. public schools (1899)


women-working

The Poverty of Women (1870)

It would be a curious and pathetic statement if we could have placed before us the sums which women have added to the wealth of the world, to which they have no title, and for which they receive no credit. Thousands of men, if they spoke the truth, would be obliged to acknowledge that the foundations of their fortunes were laid by their wives; not indirectly alone, by furnishing them with an incentive, with something to work for, but directly, in the way of counsel, encouragement, and active help.

If these women could come into their own– into what they have actually added to the productive capital of society–they would not be the paupers they are to-day, nor mere beneficiaries upon the bounty of men. The entire talents and energies of an average housekeeper are given to the care of her family, the comfort of her husband, and still, to all intents and purposes, she is a beggar. There are thousands of men, yea millions, like the old down East farmer, of whom it is related that he was an excellent husband and father, but he never could see what a woman wanted with five dollars. These men are good to their “women folks,” in country parlance, until their pockets are touched, then every dollar that is extracted for a needful pair of shoes or a new gown comes like drawing teeth. In the rural districts, at least, the belief still prevails that women cannot be trusted with money. The wife goes to the store “to trade,” at the last pinch of need; the husband stands by to check all extravagance, and when the purchases are made, reluctantly draws forth his pocket-book and pays the bill.

Multitudes of men lean on their wives every hour in the day, and often consult them on affairs of business, knowing their practical ability to be greater than their own, who have never had the generosity to draw out fifty dollars and say, “Here, take this, go and buy what is needful for yourself and the girls.” I have seen genial men transformed into sour, crabbed, disagreeable old curmudgeons at the simple question, “Father, won’t you please give us some money to day?”

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The male intellect finds it exceedingly difficult to comprehend why a woman wants or requires money. I have known women to deprive themselves of the necessaries of life rather than submit to the humiliation of asking for what is rightfully their own–what they have earned by the sweat of the brow and the toil of the hands. In agricultural districts the wife and daughters are active partners in the business of the farm. Besides attending to their own special province of housework, they help milk the cows; they assist at butter and cheese-making; they gather and preserve fruit, and prepare it for market, and in harvest time they often go into the field. They labor more hours, and have infinitely more responsibility, than any hired hand on the farm; and yet, when at the end of the season the farm-hand goes away with his pocket well lined, they have not a penny to show for their summer’s work.
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school-outdoors

A Helpmate School Committee (1874)

Some time ago, as the readers of the Lady’s Book may remember, a suggestion was made in these pages that every Board of School-Trustees should be assisted in their work by a visiting committee of women , appointed, with defined powers and duties, for inspecting the school, and suggesting any needed improvements in its studies, discipline, and accommodations. It seemed to us unreasonable that mothers, who are expected to have the main charge of the mental and physical training of their children until they go to school, should then see the control, and even the knowledge, of all that concerns this most important duty, taken away from them, and committed to men, who usually have little time, and frequently not much inclination to attend to it.

It is not a little pleasing to find that the same views have been not only entertained in England, but actually carried into effect. The following paragraph from an English paper will show how the question arose, and in what way it was met — a way which seems, under the circumstances, to have been equally ingenious and happy:

“At the Heckmondwich School Board the other day the Finance Committee recommended that a ladies’ committee be appointed to assist in the management of the new school board . The chairman observed that the question was a difficult one, and he thought the best thing the board could do would be to appoint their wives. He accordingly moved a resolution to this effect, and Mr. Wood having seconded it, the resolution was carried unanimously.”

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This mode of selecting the “ladies’ committee” must be admitted to have one defect. We take for granted that the electors will not be so ill-advised as to place upon the school board any bachelor or widower, or any member whose wife is not a veritable helpmate. In view of the possibility that such an unfortunate even might occur, it would not be advisable that the selection of members of the committee should be restricted so rigidly as was done in this instance. In every other respect, the example is one which may be commended to the attention of all true friends of education, and, we may add, of women’ s rights; for what better right can a woman have than to see that the education of her children is properly conducted, and that the care of their health is not neglected?

Godey’s Lady’s Book— Louis Antoine Godey began publishing Godey’s Lady’s Book in 1830. He designed his monthly magazine specifically to attract the growing audience of literate American women. The magazine was intended to entertain, inform, and educate the women of America.

Source: Godey’s Lady’s Book, February, 1874
Photo: School children seated at two tables, with their teacher, outdoors, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Details)


boston-women

The Women of Boston (1880)

When an English gentleman was asked what seemed to him the most remarkable thing in Boston, he promptly answered, “The Women!” Mary Carpenter said “she did not see what more the women of Boston could ask for,” so favorably did their position compare with that of women in any other country.

There is a strong and recognizable type of Boston women whose characteristics are clear and enduring; and the gradual formation of this type may be traced from the earliest periods of the town’s history, as in leading individuals those qualities are clearly seen which have made the woman of to-day what she is. The Boston woman inherits from a line of well-bred and well-educated ancestors, mostly English, a physical frame delicate and supple, but enduring. It is capable of great nervous force and energy, and can be made to serve the mind and will almost absolutely. But she is liable to attacks of disease, and under unfavorable conditions her nervous energy degenerates into irritability. More intellectual than passionate, her impulses are under control; and she is reserved and cold in manner, while a gentle purity inspires confidence even before it awakens affection.

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Her morality is stern and exacting, and she does not understand the temptations which beset other natures; her own sense of chastity is so high that, like the lady in Comus, she walks amid a thousand dangers unheeding and unharmed. She shrinks from contact with evil until it appears as suffering, when duty and benevolence overcome her sensitiveness. She is speculative in theology, while conservative in her tastes; and, though indulging great freedom of thought, is devout in her habits. This conflict sometimes produces a strain upon her feelings too great for endurance, and she seeks refuge in an established church. Perhaps this is only a brief rest in her onward career, or it leads to a life of moral or benevolent activity in which she is content. Her aesthetic nature is serious and refined, preferring the classic music to the modern opera, and pre-Raphaelitism to sensuous beauty. The subdued style of her dress marks her position in the scale of refinement.

Aristocratic by tradition, she is in danger of becoming exclusive and narrow; but, liberalized by education, she is democratic in her work, if not in her tastes and social habits.

Her hospitality is not free, for her time is precious and her housekeeping orderly; but the old Boston matron made home a radiating centre of goodness and happiness. She gives the name of “friend” carefully, but holds it sacredly.

By Mrs. Ednah D. Cheney

The full-text search capability of the American County Histories database permits the student/researcher to explore all the publications of a particular county by using a single query. In addition, those wishing to read or browse the text on a page by page basis may do so in the original format merely by scrolling down the screen and then continuing to the next chapter.

Source: The Memorial History of Boston, September 17, 1880.
Image: Godey’s Lady’s Book, March, 1878


capitol

Gage on Voting Rights for Washington D.C. Citizens

This testimony was delivered by Matilda Joslyn Gage in a special meeting of the committees of the Senate and House of Representatives on the District of Columbia on Friday, March 31, 1876.

Testimony by MATILDA JOSLYN GAGE, of New York:

On behalf of the National Association, which has its officers in every State and territory of the Union, and which numbers many thousands of members, and on behalf of the Woman’s Franchise Association of the District of Columbia, we appear before you, asking that the right of suffrage be secured equally to the men and women of this District.

Article I, Section 8, Clauses 17 and 18 of the Constitution of the United States reads:

Congress shall have power to exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district as may become the seat of government of the United States, … to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers.

Congress is therefore constitutionally the special guardian of the rights of the people of the District of Columbia. It possesses peculiar rights, peculiar duties, peculiar powers in regard to this District. At the present time the men and women are alike disfranchised. Our memorial asks that in forming a new government they may be alike enfranchised. It is often said as an argument against granting suffrage to women that they do not wish to vote; do not ask for the ballot. This association, numbering thousands in the United States, through its representatives, now asks you, in this memorial, for suffrage in this District. Petitions from every State in the Union have been sent to your honorable body. One of these, signed by thirty-five thousand women, was sent to congress in one large roll; but what is the value of a petition signed by even a million of an unrepresented class?

Matilda Joslyn Gage

Matilda Joslyn Gage

The city papers of the national capital, once bitterly opposed to all effort in this direction, now fully recognize the dignity of the demand, and have ceased to oppose it. One of these said, editorially, to-day, that the vast audiences assembling at our conventions, the large majority being women, and evidently in sympathy with the movement, were proof of the great interest women take in this subject, though many are too timid to openly make the demand. The woman’s temperance movement began two years ago as a crusade of prayer and song, and the women engaged therein have now resolved themselves into a national organization, whose second convention, held in October last, numbering delegates from twenty-two States, almost unanimously passed a resolution demanding the ballot to aid them in their temperance work. We who make our constant demand for suffrage, knew that these women were in process of education, and would soon be forced to ask for the key to all reform.

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