These instructions appeared in Godey’s Lady’s Book in January of 1859.
Trussing for roasting is managed in a different way from that for boiling, described herein. The following list of the methods adopted for roasting include the various kinds of poultry and game. It should be carefully remarked, that all skewers and strings should be removed after roasting, except the fine thread used in sewing up the belly of a hare or rabbit.
Godey’s Lady’s Book
— Louis Antoine Godey began publishing Godey’s Lady’s Book
in 1830. He designed his monthly magazine specifically to attract the growing audience of literate American women. The magazine was intended to entertain, inform, and educate the women of America.
(a) TURKEYS , FOWLS, AND PIGEONS are trussed alike, with very slight variations. The legs are first broken half-way between the feet and the next joint, then fixing the feet in a door-joint, or a table-drawer, or in a screw-press, the sinews are torn out. Next, place a doubled-up cloth on the breast, and press or beat the bone till it gives way. After this, the wings have a slit cut in their thin expansion of skin, and through this the gizzard and liver are passed, one on each side; next to which the pinions are turned over the back, and a wooden skewer is passed through the flesh of each wing close to the bone, transfixing the body, and also each thigh. The head is cut off close to the body, first drawing the skin well back, so as to leave a long covering for the end. This piece of skin is then passed under the ends of the pinions, or, if in a stuffed turkey , it is tied with a piece of coarse string, which is removed after roasting. In stuffing, be careful not to fill the skin too full, or it will burst in roasting.
All is now described but the legs, which should have been pushed up under the skin of the breast, and secured there by the skewer transfixing them and the wings through the body, and passing through them close to the joints. The horny skin is scaled and peeled, after which a piece of string, or a small skewer, at the small end of the legs, completes the operation. If the skewer is used, it transfixes the side-bone. (See Figs. 1, 2, and 3.)
(b) GEESE AND DUCKS have their heads cut off in the same way as described at (a); but the legs are cut off at the first joint above the feet, and the wings are also removed at the first joint.
Sometimes, however, the legs of ducks are left on as in fowls. Next, introduce the stuffing and tie the skin, as described at (a).
After this, the wings are transfixed by a skewer through the body, and the legs the same, keeping them down by the side of the side-bones. The giblets, including the pinions, legs, liver, heart, gizzard, head, and neck, are separately cooked. (See Figs. 4 and 5.)