Tag Archives: Revolutionary War

Treaty of Paris signed September 3, 1783

By the Lord Hyde Packet, arrived at New York from Falmouth, we have the following Advices.

LONDON, September 30.

The DEFINITIVE TREATY between GREAT BRITAIN and the UNITED STATES of AMERICA, signed at Paris, the 3d day of September, 1783.

In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity. IT having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the Most serene and Most Potent Prince George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Arch Treasurer and Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, &c. and of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good correspondence and friendship which they mutually wish to restore, and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse between the two countries, and upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience, as may promote and secure to both perpetual peace and harmony; and having for this desirable end already laid the foundation of peace and reconciliation, by the Provisional Articles signed at Paris, on the 30th of November, 1782, by the Commissioners empowered on each part, which Articles were agreed to be inserted in, and to constitute the Treaty of Peace proposed to be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United States, but which Treaty was not to be concluded until terms of peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain and France, and his Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such Treaty accordingly; and the Treaty between Great Britain and France having since been concluded, his Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full effect the Provisional Articles above mentioned, according to the tenor thereof, have constituted and appointed, that is to say, his Britannic Majesty on his part, David Hartley, Esq; Member of the Parliament of Great Britain, and the said United States on their part, John Adams, Esq; late a Commissioner of the United States of America at the Court of Versailles, late Delegate in Congress from the State of Massachusetts, and Chief Justice of the said State, and Minister Plenipotentiary of the said United States to their High Mightiness the States General of the United Netherlands; Benjamin Franklin, Esq; late Delegate in Congress from the State of Pennsylvania, President of the Convention of the said State, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America at the Court of Versailles; and John Jay, Esq; late President of Congress, and Chief Justice of the State of New York, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the said United States at the Court of Madrid, to be Plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the present Definitive Treaty; who, after having reciprocally communicated their respective full powers, have agreed upon and confirmed the following Articles: (more…)

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Sullivan Expedition Commemorative Plaque

The Battle of Chemung or Newtown of August 1779

Sunday, August 29, 1779, is the date of the battle of Chemung, or of Newtown as it has been indifferently called since. Its scene was at the foot of the eminence now known as “Sullivan Hill,” about half way between the little hamlet of “Lowman’s,” on the line of the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, and the mouth of Seeley Creek. The surface of the hillside is very irregular, being cut up by those peculiar ridges, to which I have heretofore referred, called the “Hogbacks.” At its foot flows Baldwin Creek. Our troops began their march on that hot August Sunday morning with extreme care and watchfulness. Their path was through a forest of pines and a thick growth of scrub oak.

The fortifications of the enemy were discovered after a march of about four miles, and about 11 o’clock in the morning. They were very artfully constructed, being built in most places breast high or more, in others lower, and pits or holes were dug where the defenders could be protected. The whole work was masked by the slope of the ridge, being thickly set with scrub oaks cut the night before from the hillside. Somewhat in front of the fortifications were one or two log houses, which served as bastions.

Map of The Battlefield of Newtown

Map of The Battlefield of Newtown
1. Position of the brigades of Generals Clinton and Poorbefore the advance. 2. Position of Proctor’s artillery. Maxwell’s reserve, anclColonel Ogden’s command. 3. Position of Colonel Ogden’s troops and GeneralHand’s brigade in the advance. 4. The forces of Generals Clinton and Poor inaction after the advance as shown by the dotted lines and arrow; also the positionof the enemy. 5. Direction taken by the enemy in retreating. 6. Site ofthe monument 7. The monument.

It would seem that the enemy, considering that their fortifications were perfectly concealed, expected our forces to follow the Indian trail, which was at the right of their defenses. They would open upon them on our flank a sudden and severe fire, which would create confusion at first and result in disaster to our troops. But the reckoning was not wise. General Sullivan did not fall into the well-laid trap. When the advance guard had discovered the enemy’s position a council of officers was called, the ground was well looked over, and a plan of attack was agreed upon. It was most successful in its execution.

During this time the riflemen who were in the advance guard had kept the enemy busy. They formed within 300 yards of the fortifications, and were ordered to hold their position until the remainder of the brigade should come up. This order was hardly given when some 400 of the enemy advanced from the entrenchments, delivered their fire, and quickly retreated to their works. This sortie was repeated several times, evidently for the purpose of enticing our men into their lines. But it failed of its purpose, the riflemen simply holding their position as they were ordered to do. The battle was won by a flank movement.

General John Sullivan and General James Clinton Plaque

General John Sullivan and General James Clinton Plaque

Source

Our County and its People, A History Of The Valley And County Of Chemung from the Closing Years of the Eighteenth Century by Ausburn Towner in the New York County Histories section of American County Histories.

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Monument Monday: Bunker Hill Monument

In 1842 Bunker Hill Monument* was completed.

The event was considered one of national importance.

Indeed, the completed structure represents the offering of a nation, and is a remarkable example of the truth that where men fail in carrying out an object that appeals wholly to pure and patriotic sentiment, women invariably succeed.

Bunker Hill Monument when completed

Completed Bunker Hill Monument

Mount Vernon, Bunker Hill, and the Old South Church are so many monuments to the women of America.

For a comprehensive résumé of the history of the present monument, we have no more appropriate language than that of Hon. G. W. Warren in his annual address to the Monument Association, made in 1862.

“On the 17th of June, 1823, the Bunker Hill Monument Association was first organized. In two years from that day the young patriotic society had obtained the means to acquire to itself a large part of the field of the battle of Bunker Hill, and to lay, with imposing ceremonies, the cornerstone of the monument. In 1843, just twenty years from its organization,—the great work having been completed by popular aid alone,—the association, with equally imposing ceremonies, and in the presence of the whole executive government of the nation, and of patriotic and official personages from every state, inaugurated one of the grandest monuments to one of the grandest objects of commemoration in the world.”

William Tudor of Boston, the accomplished scholar, was the first to draw public attention to the building of a memorial on Bunker Hill, commensurate with the importance of the event it was forever to celebrate. He pursued the subject until the sympathies and co-operation of many distinguished citizens were enlisted.

This action resulted in some preliminary steps being taken. In November, 1822, Dr. John C. Warren, nephew of the general, purchased three acres of land on Bunker Hill, thus securing a site for the proposed monument. A meeting of those friendly to the enterprise was held at the Merchants’ Exchange in Boston, in May, 1823, which resolved itself, under an act of incorporation passed June 7, 1823, into the Bunker Hill Monument Association. Daniel Webster presided at the first meeting.

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