Tag Archives: U.S. History

Arming Slaves: Gov. Josiah Martin’s Denial

Lieutenant-Colonel Josiah Martin (23 April 1737 – 13 April 1786) was the last Royal Governor of the Province of North Carolina (1771–1775). Martin was born in Dublin, Ireland, of a planter family well established on the Caribbean island of Antigua, third son of his father’s second marriage. His elder half-brother Samuel Martin (1714–1788) was secretary to the Treasury in London. Another brother Sir Henry Martin (1735–1794) was for many years naval commissioner at Portsmouth and Comptroller of the Royal Navy. Sir Henry was father of Thomas Byam Martin.

The following letter was wrote by his excellency governor Josiah Martin, to the honourable Lewis Henry De Rossett, esquire, in answer to an information given him of his having been charged with giving encouragement to the slaves to revolt from their masters. As the substance of this letter is truly alarming, his excellency therein publicly avowing the measure of arming the slaves against their masters, when every other means to preserve the king’s government should prove ineffectual, the committee have ordered the said letter to be published, as an alarm to the people of this province, against the horrid and barbarous designs of the enemies, not only to their internal peace and safety, but to their lives, liberties, properties, and every other human blessing.

Fort Johnston, June 24, 1775



Josiah Martin

Josiah Martin

I beg leave to make you my acknowledgements for your communication of the false, malicious, and scandalous report, that has been propagated of me in this part of the province, of my having given encouragement to the negroes to revolt against their masters; and as I persuade myself you kindly intended thereby to give me an opportunity to refuse so infamous a charge, I eagerly embrace this occasion most solemnly to assure you that I have never conceived a thought of that nature. And I will further add my opinion, that nothing could ever justify the design falsely imputed to me, of giving encouragement to the negroes, but the actual and declared rebellion of the king’s subjects, and the failure of all other means to maintain the king’s government.

Permit me, therefore, sir, to request the favour of you to take the most effectual means to prevent the circulation of this most cruel slander, and to assure every body with whom you shall communicate on this subject, that so far from entertaining so horrid a design, I shall be ever ready and heartily disposed to concur in any measures that may be consistent with prudence, to keep the negroes in order and subjection, and for the maintenance of peace and good order throughout the province. I am, with great respect, sir, your most obedient humble servant,

Jo. Martin

Published weekly in Williamsburg, Virginia between 1736 and 1780, The Virginia Gazette contained news covering all of Virginia and also included information from other colonies, Scotland, England and additional countries. The paper appeared in three competing versions from a succession of publishers over the years, some published concurrently, and all under the same title.

Source:  The Virginia Gazette, August 31, 1775

In July 1775, a plot instigated by Martin to arm the slaves was discovered. In retaliation, John Ashe led a group of colonists against Fort Johnston on 20 July. Martin was forced to flee aboard the Cruiser while the colonists destroyed the fort. Martin remained off the coast of North Carolina, directing the rising of the Loyalists, whom he supplied with weapons brought from England.

After two attempted invasions during the Carolina campaign to re-establish his administration were turned back, Martin, who was then in ill health due to fatigue, left for Long Island and then England.

He died in London. He is the namesake of Martin County, North Carolina.[


The “Real” Gold Rush

For those of you that tune each week for the latest trials and tribulations on the TV reality show “Gold Rush,” what was it like to visit the Klondike along the path of the original gold seekers during the Gold Rush in 1898?  In the TV series, you see panning as a way of checking for color before launching into a possible source of gold, or watch the resuscitation of a massive gold dredge as it chews its way through a gold field. The importance of a “paying” sluice box was essential in 1898, as well as 2015. But, the scale of the show’s gold operation is gigantic in comparison to the simple wooden sluice boxes of the 1890s. There is even one episode that shows hydraulic mining for gold – a practice that became heavily-regulated in California during the same period due to the environmental destruction it wrought.

The cast of characters in the show and during the 1890s are very similar – they came from all walks of life, various non-mining occupations, all infected with gold fever.

This article from Frank Leslie’s Weekly, presents a picture of the Klondike gold fields by Mrs. C. R. Miller, a reporter…

The Golden Treasure of the Klondike Creeks


The Real Gold Rush - Frank Leslie's Weekly

The Real Gold Rush – Frank Leslie’s Weekly

TO OBTAIN a correct impression of the real condition of gold-seeking in the Klondike a trip to the “creeks” is necessary. It is surprising with what comparative ease and comfort this journey may be made, and for this the traveler is indebted to the progressive and liberal policy of the government. In all that immense territory which constitutes northwestern Canada, wherever the enterprising spirit of the gold-hunter has discovered a field worth working, Canada has immediately followed with an official investigation which, if favorable, leads promptly to the establishment of a good wagon road to that point. These assist in the rapid opening up of the country by attracting those people who would not settle there under less advantageous conditions, and by materially reducing the cost of transporting the machinery and implements necessary for extensive and productive mining operations. That part of the Yukon territory known as the Klondike covers about eight hundred square miles, and during the last nine years the Canadian government has expended more than a million dollars in the building of public highways, with the result that the great mining district is covered by a network of roads over which passenger and freight stages pass daily. The Klondike has produced about $110,000,000 in gold since its opening, and is likely to continue productive for many years, now that the machinery which reduces the cost of working the gravel has been installed at nearly all the mines.

Frank Leslie’s Weekly, published from 1855 to 1922, was an American illustrated news publication started by publisher and illustrator Frank Leslie. While only 30 copies of the first edition were printed, by 1897 its circulation had grown to an estimated 65,000 copies.



I positively deny that he is my brother…

This report from one of the Lincoln-Douglas debates ran in The Liberator on October 15, 1858. In the last section the editors tried to convey a sense of the audience response in parenthetical asides.

In 1858 Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas were running for one of Illinois two Senate seats. That election featured frequent speeches by both candidates and a series of seven debates known as The Lincoln–Douglas Debates of 1858 or The Great Debates of 1858. The debates previewed the issues that Lincoln would face in the aftermath of his victory in the 1860 presidential election.

Although Illinois, itself, was a free state, the main issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery in the United States.

William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator was a weekly abolitionist newspaper published in Boston. The paper held true to the founder’s ideals. Garrison was a journalistic crusader who advocated the immediate emancipation of all slaves and gained a national reputation for being one of the most radical of American abolitionists.

Stephen A. Douglas, in reply to his opponent, Mr. Lincoln:

We are told by Lincoln that he is utterly opposed to the Dred Scott decision, and will not submit to it for the reason, as he says, that it deprives the Negroes of the rights and privileges of citizens.

For one, I am opposed to Negro citizenship in any form. I believe that this Government was made on the white basis. I believe it was made by white men, for the benefit of white men and their posterity forever, and I am in favor of confining the citizenship to white men—men of European descent, instead of conferring it on negroes and Indians, and other inferior races. But Mr. Lincoln, following the land of the Abolition orators that come here and lecture in the basement of your churches and schoolhouses, reads in the Declaration of Independence that all men are created free and equal, and then says; ‘How can you deprive the negro of that equality which God and the Declaration of Independence award to him?’ He and they maintain that Negro equality is guaranteed by the laws of God, and reasserted in the Declaration of Independence. If they think so, they ought thus to vote.

I do not question Mr. Lincoln’s conscientious belief that the Negro was made his equal, and hence is his brother. But for my own part, I do not regard the Negro as my equal and I positively deny that he is my brother, or any kin to me whatever.


Adams County Ohio Courthouse

Ohio’s Wholesale Vote Selling (1911)

Below is a characteristic photograph of the man who heard the cases of the Adams County voters who sold their franchise at the recent election in Ohio.



This picture was taken in the court-house at West Union, while the judge was fining and disfranchising his neighbors.

It is estimated that the total number of the guilty may reach 3,000. Never before in the history of American politics has there been such wholesale corruption. All classes were included in the list of those indicted. Many threats were made against Judge Blair, but the investigation was sweeping and unsparing.

The judge’s methods in listening to the pleas of the indicted are extremely informal. The judge knows most of the voters in the county by their first names, and the scene in court is rather a social one, but in some ways just as impressive.

“How about it, John, are you guilty?” asks the court.

“I reckon I am, judge,” is the usual reply.

“All right, John, I’ll have to fine you ten dollars, and you can’t vote any more for five years. And I’ll just put a six months’ workhouse sentence on top of that, but I won’t enforce it as long as you behave.”

“All right, judge, you’ve got the goods on me.”

“And say, John, you’ve been keeping liquor in your house and inviting your friends in, haven’t you?” the judge will ask. “You’ll have to cut that out, John. Remember there’s a workhouse sentence hanging over you if you don’t walk straight. Adams County is ‘dry,’ you know.”

“All right, judge, good-bye,” and the culprit pays his fine, walks out and the next case is on.

Frank Leslie’s Weekly, published from 1855 to 1922, was an American illustrated news publication started by publisher and illustrator Frank Leslie. While only 30 copies of the first edition were printed, by 1897 its circulation had grown to an estimated 65,000 copies.


New Jersey and The Rebellion: A History of the Services of the Troops and People of New Jersey in Aid of The Union Cause

A Look Inside: New Jersey and the Rebellion

Part Two of our Civil War collection, The Soldiers’ Perspective, provides an in-depth look at the day-to-day actions of the troops themselves primarily in the form of regimental histories.

Usually written by an individual, but sometimes compiled by a committee, these books were published after the war to document what actually happened. While some battle and war narratives are included, the focus was primarily on the individual rather than on regimental action.

This is an excellent example that was published in 1868, quite soon after the war ended:  New Jersey and The Rebellion: A History of the Services of the Troops and People of New Jersey in Aid of The Union Cause by John Y. Foster.

Visitors with institutional access to Accessible Archives can browse this book at http://www.accessible.com/accessible/preLog?Browse=B00125187 and personal subscribers can locate it by logging in and using the Browse feature to reach the  The Soldier’s Perspective list of books.

From the Preface

New Jersey and The Rebellion: A History of the Services of the Troops and People of New Jersey in Aid of The Union CauseThe story of New Jersey’s part in the War for the Union, recorded in the following pages, has been written under many and serious difficulties. While the writer has in some cases been furnished with ample materials, in many others he has not been able to procure any official data whatever, while in nearly every instance he has found the testimony so conflicting and uncertain that it has been impossible to reach any really satisfactory conclusion. Compelled in some cases to examine hundreds of pages of manuscript to arrive at a single fact, and in others to travel scores of miles in quest of some authority which, when found, proved worthless or untrustworthy, the labor of gathering up the stray hints, the vague personal narratives, and the official statements out of which this Book is constructed, has been from first to last infinitely greater than any reader will conceive. But to the writer, this work, with all its embarassments and discouragements, and responsible as it proved, has been one of genuine pleasure; and if he has been so fortunate as to preserve any facts as to the gallantry of our troops, or the patriotism of our people, which might otherwise have been lost, he is wholly content.